The 2nd line of defense of your immune system:

Non-Specific are foot soldiers

If an invader makes it over the fence, there is an army of non-specific actions that happen. Phagocytes go to work, which are a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other small cells and particles.

  • These “Non-Specific Responses” are generalized responses to pathogen infection. They do not target a specific cell type.
  • Phagocytes: Cells which “eat foreign material to destroy them
  • Macrophage: The King of phagocytes that is a “big eater” that takes on larger invaders.
  • Leucocytes: Involves an allergic response and contain inflammatory chemicals including histamine and seratonin. Causes blood vessels near wounds to constrict.
  • Complement proteins: Some punch holes in bacterial walls, some promote inflammation, some literally bind to the surface of invading organisms.
  • Chemokines: Creates a chemical gradient to attract other soldiers to the attack site.
  • Inflammation: Changes the capillary wall structure to allow interstitial fluid (fluid that bathes and surrounds tissue cells) and white blood cells to leak out in tissue.
  • Interleukins: Increases body temperature (i.e. causes a fever).


How inflammation works in the immune system.

Immune System: 3. The Special Forces
Immune System: 1. Do you have skin in the game?